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They are also quite stable in the external environment, but can be destroyed by various chemical and physical factors.
The site provides reference information for informational purposes only. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. The causative agents of brucellosis are bacteria from the genus Brucella (Brucella), the main habitat of which are domestic and wild animals. In animals, these microorganisms do not cause an obvious clinical picture of the disease, but can lead to mass abortions and other pathologies. Science knows 6 types of Brucella, but 4 of them can cause pathology in humans.
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All types of Brucella are characterized by a high invasive ability, that is, they can easily enter the human body through mucous membranes or damaged skin.
Although Brucella are considered intracellular parasites (developing inside the cells of the host organism), they can remain outside the cells for a long time. Brucella can survive. In water - up to 2 months. In raw meat - up to 3 months. In animal hair - up to 4 months. At a temperature of 60 degrees - up to 30 minutes. When boiled, these microorganisms die almost instantly, as well as when exposed to various disinfectant solutions (0.2 - 1% bleach solution, chloramine, and so on).
How can a brucellosis infection occur? People with brucellosis are not contagious to each other, that is, a person can become infected with this infection only from an animal.
From animal to human, brucellosis can be transmitted.
This is the main route of infection, in which bacteria enter the human body through the mucous membranes of the digestive system (when a person comes into contact with the urine or feces of infected animals and personal hygiene is not followed). Also, a person can become infected by eating milk, cheese, feta cheese, poorly processed (thermally) meat and other animal products. Contact household way. It is characterized by the penetration of bacteria into the human body through damaged skin or mucous membranes.
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Sick animals seed (infect) with bacteria almost the entire environment around them - bedding, water, earth. That is why it is quite easy for a person working with animals to become infected with brucellosis (for example, when cleaning animal pens and not observing personal hygiene rules, when working with sheep's wool, and so on). aerogenic way. In this case, a person inhales microparticles of dust or wool, on which brucella are located. These microparticles linger on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, from where the pathogen enters the body.
It should be noted that brucellosis is widespread almost everywhere. However, the risk group includes people engaged in animal husbandry (shepherds, milkmaids), as well as workers in meat processing plants. Immunity after an infection persists for 6 to 12 months, after which re-infection is possible.
Pathogenesis (mechanism of development) of brucellosis. As mentioned earlier, brucella enters the human body through the mucous membranes or through damaged skin (in this case, the damage does not have to be massive and noticeable, sometimes microcracks are enough, which are present on the hands of almost any agricultural worker). It is important to note that no visible traces or pathological changes remain at the site of Brucella introduction, so it can be quite difficult to determine the exact time of infection.
After penetration into the human body, brucella go through several successive stages of development, which determines the clinical manifestations of the disease.levaniya. Symptoms and signs of brucellosis. The symptoms of brucellosis largely depend on the stage of its development, on the state of decadron pills immune system, as well as on the dose of the pathogen that initially entered the body (the higher it is, the faster and the more pronounced the clinical manifestations of the disease will be).
It is also worth noting that most severe forms of brucellosis are caused by B. melitensis, which can be transmitted to humans from small ruminants.
An increase in body temperature (fever) with brucellosis.
In most cases, within a few days after infection, patients may experience a slight low-grade fever (an increase in body temperature up to 37 - 37.5 degrees), accompanied by other non-specific signs of infection (general weakness, fatigue, headaches and muscle pain, joint pain, aching all over the body and so on). These symptoms progress over several days (while the brucellas proliferate in the lymph nodes), after which the body temperature can rise to 38-39 degrees, which is usually accompanied by chills, heavy sweat and deterioration in general well-being.
The rate of development and severity of fever in brucellosis is determined by the type of pathogen, as well as its initial dose.
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Fever in brucellosis is characterized by an undulating course, that is, it lasts for several days, after which it subsides for a while, and then resumes again (exacerbation periods in this case are associated with the destruction of macrophages and the entry of a large number of decadron into the bloodstream).
During the incubation period, pathological changes in the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels are usually not observed. A generalized (ubiquitous) increase in peripheral lymph nodes can be observed in the early stages of the disease, due to the penetration of bacteria into the blood and their spread throughout the body.
- At the same time, lymph nodes increase to 5–7 mm in diameter, become dense and slightly painful on palpation (palpation).
- Especially clearly pathological changes can be determined in the cervical, axillary and inguinal groups of lymph nodes.
- The skin above them is usually not changed.
It is also worth noting that in most patients with brucellosis, there is an increase in the liver and spleen, which is due to the penetration and development of brucella in the small blood vessels of these organs. With a long course of the disease, more and more groups of lymph nodes are involved in the pathological process, which over time can be destroyed and replaced by connective (scar) tissue, losing their functional activity as a result. Damage to bones and joints in brucellosis.
These granulomas can eventually be replaced by fibrous scar tissue, which will lead to irreversible damage to the structure and function of the affected organ. These phenomena are observed in the subacute or chronic course of the disease.
The defeat of the musculoskeletal system (as well as other organs and tissues) occurs as a result of the penetration of Brucella into the tissues of the joints and bones, followed by the development of infectious and inflammatory processes in them and the formation of granulomas.
Arthritis occurs when Brucella penetrates into the articular cavities and damages intra-articular structures (synovium, articular surfaces of cartilage, and so on). Arthritis is manifested by severe pain and limited mobility in the affected joints, resulting from the progression of the inflammatory process.
The skin over the affected joint may be edematous, swollen, hyperemic (red) and very painful when touched or when moving. Periarthritis. Periarthritis is characterized by inflammation of the periarticular components (joint capsule, periarticular ligaments, and so on), which is clinically manifested by pain and impaired mobility in the joint (more pronounced than with simple arthritis). Bursitis. Bursitis is an inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines the inside of the joint cavity.
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Under normal conditions, the synovial membrane produces a certain amount of synovial fluid, which nourishes the articular cartilage and facilitates their sliding against each other during movements. With bursitis, the amount of fluid formed increases significantly. As a result, it accumulates in the joint cavity, causing an increase in intra-articular pressure, impaired mobility and pain. Tendovaginitis. This term refers to the inflammation of the inner lining of the synovial sheaths of the muscle tendons, which is usually observed in the area of the hands and feet.
Under normal conditions, these sheaths surround the tendons, allowing them to glide freely during muscle contraction (thiso is carried out due to the presence of synovial fluid in them). With the development of tendovaginitis, the walls of the vagina thicken, and the amount of fluid produced increases, which leads to compression of the tendons and pain. Periostitis. Periostitis is called inflammation of the periosteum - the outer shell of the bone, which is responsible for the protection and renewal of bone tissue.
Fibrositis is an inflammation of the fascial membranes surrounding the muscles. At first, this can be manifested by mild soreness in the muscle area, and then dense nodules form at the site of soreness, which are easily displaced under the skin.